Ampion and Inflammatory Kidney Diseases
About Inflammatory Kidney Disease
The loss of kidney function is commonly classified as two distinct syndromes: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI).
CKD is a major global public health issue which affects 10 to 15% of the world population. Unfortunately, once CKD develops, the progression to kidney failure is irreversible. Similarly, the prevalence and mortality of AKI is also increasing around the world, especially in developing countries, with varying disease estimates between 10 to 25% and mortality at 15 to 60%.
Kidney disease is caused by inflammation and involves many factors which contribute to the progression of renal disfunction, including an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12), oxidative stress, and the infiltration of immune cells (particularly macrophages). The overabundance of these cytokines and the presence of inflammatory macrophages create an environment of persistent, dysregulated inflammation that ultimately leads to kidney failure.
Prostaglandins (PGs) are abundantly produced in the kidney, and the PGs generated by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcriptional pathway play an important role in maintaining salt balance and blood pressure and may protect against developing CKDs such as diabetic kidney disease. Additionally, these PGs (especially PGE2) are important anti-inflammatory mediators for recovering from acute kidney injury.
Ampion and Inflammatory Kidney Disease
The prevalence of acute and chronic kidney disease continues to grow, with an aging population and no specific therapies identified to lessen the incidence or assist in the recovery of kidney diseases. Effective treatments are needed urgently.
Drugs prescribed to treat inflammatory conditions – including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – address inflammation by inhibiting the COX-2 pathway which can lead to NSAID nephritis, kidney damage, increased hypertension, and stroke.
Ampion offers an alternative way to treat inflammatory kidney disease. Preclinical pharmacology studies using human in vitro models of the immunology (e.g., peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages) indicate that Ampion reduces inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12) responsible for inflammation, macrophage infiltration, organ damage, and acute kidney injury.
In these same studies, Ampion and its active components are also shown to promote the production of prostaglandins (e.g., PGE2) responsible for maintaining balance in the kidney. This provides a basis for continued research and development for use of Ampion in kidney diseases. Ampion may provide a therapeutic benefit by reducing the causes of inflammation while restoring the prostaglandins that can protect kidney function.
Ampion regulates the immune response
Ampion uses the power of the immune response and is in development to treat osteoarthritis, respiratory illness due to COVID-19, and a wide range of other debilitating and life-threatening inflammatory conditions.